Developmental Stages of Block Play

Block play is such an important part of the early childhood classroom.  It provides potent opportunities for creativity, imagination, problem solving, and foundational mathematical understandings. It is something that actually has a developmental sequence to it – like writing or drawing.  I love to watch the expansion of block play in the kindergarten.  It becomes such a world in itself!  I find it fascinating that the way children use the blocks can actually tell me something about their developmental growth cognitively.

Stage 1 Tote and Carry (2 and 3 years old)
At this stage, one of the first activities is the act of carrying around the blocks or piling them.  It is a full sensory experience as the child experiences the smoothness, the weight, the size and the sounds they make when they drop the blocks.  In this stage, the child is learning about blocks and what blocks can do.

Stage 2 Building Begins (3 years old)
At this stage, a child will pile the blocks to make a tower or lay the blocks on the floor in rows, either horizontally or vertically.  There is much repetition in their building.  It is in this stage that the first application of imagination occurs as props such as cars or trucks are used on “roads.”

Stage 3  Bridging (3 and 4 years old)
At this stage children begin to experiment connecting two blocks with a space between them with a third block. Children learn to bridge by trial and error as they begin to explore balance and their eye-hand coordination improves.

Stage 4 Enclosures (4 years old)
At this stage, a child will place blocks so to enclose a space.  This shows an understanding of inside and outside.   Enclosures, like bridges, become landscapes for imaginative play with props like dollhouse dolls, farm animals and such.  Enclosures and bridging are the first “technical” acts of block building that children accomplish.

Stage 5  Representational Building (4 and 5 years old)
At this stage you will see children using symmetry, patterns, balance, and designs to create buildings.  There is an element of dramatic play to their block building.  The play can include naming the structure and its function (and letting those who interfere or who try to redesign know they are wrong!).   If you teach pre-k or Kindergarten you know that if two children are building a specific structure and a third child attempts to alter the structure – upset results!

Stage 6  Complex Building  (5 years old and up)
By age 5, the dexterity and skill of block play is quite elaborate!  You will see curved buildings, multiple levels, the building over other structures and toys.  The children are in the stage of cooperative play and it is not uncommon for discussions of what they want to build, how they may build the structures and what part each will play in the “drama”.  At this stage it is helpful to have a wide range of sizes and types of blocks available. 

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  1. ah…the NAEYC block book. I love that book. I haven’t seen a copy for years.

  2. Yes! Me too! I used to have a copy years ago. I want to hunt one down! If I recall correctly – it went into wonderful detail! A oldie but goodie and my true inspiration for this posting. 🙂

  3. Darcey says:

    I haven’t thought of block building in developmental stages, but this totaly makes sense. Thank you for the post. I’ve linked up to your post on my weekly favorites here:

  4. Thank you Darcey!

  5. chele says:

    Very intrigued with how this maps with engineering concepts. Can you please tell me if you used the developmental theory of Piaget or Parten in your description of these developmental stages of block play?

    Thank you so much!

  6. I used a combination of understandings. Tell me more by what you are pointing to — I am not sure I understand the context of the “engineering concepts.” Now I am very intrigued! 🙂

  7. Anonymous says:

    The pictures are so helpful and needed for many to ‘get’ the stages and their differences. Thanks.

  8. Anonymous says:

    Thank you for this article. Just had new blocks a few weeks ago and this will help me explain the importance and stages to other staff members. Thank you

  9. Anonymous says:

    Love what you have written! could i possibly reference this in my dissertation, i am planning on writing about how block play helps children learn and develop?

  10. Pat Small says:

    Thanks for sharing your insight into the development stages of block play. Have you considered the link to schemes and how they prent themselves in children. I agree that block play should be a fundamental part in all we do and the scope for cross curricular activity is immense.

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